Article 21: Right to Life

                            Article 21: Right to Life

Without following the legal processes set forth by law, no one may be deprived of their life or personal freedom. The most organic and forward-thinking clause in our living Constitution, this Article has been called the “heart” of our Constitution. Two rights are protected under Article 21: the right to life and the right to personal liberty. Except in accordance with the legal procedures, both rights are protected by this article. According to Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, this clause may only be invoked in cases where the state denies a person their right to life and personal liberty.

Equality of life

The phrase “right to life” really refers to living a high-quality existence rather than an endless life similar to that of an animal. In the current phases of our civilization, it refers to “the fullest opportunity to develop one’s personality and potentiality to the highest level.” It implies that a person must be rationally at ease and polite. The Supreme Court ruled in Sunil Batra v. Delhi Administration that a person’s “right to life” includes the freedom to lead a healthy life and take advantage of all of the body’s natural capabilities. “Right to life” includes the protection of an individual’s customs, culture, heritage, and other elements that provide meaning to their life.

1. Right to Reputation – The intrinsic and unbreakable substance of Article 21. Every individual spends their entire life trying to establish their reputation in the community. is among the higher qualities of human civilization that give life meaning.

2. Right to Livelihood -A “livelihood” is a way of providing for one’s basic needs. A person’s primary source of income is his or her job. According to Article 21, the right to subsistence is a necessary component of the right to life. A person’s right to life is being taken away if their right to a livelihood is violated. 

3. Right to Shelter -It has been determined that the right to shelter is a basic right that results from the rights to residence protected by Article 19(1)(e) and life guaranteed by Article 21.

4. Right to Sustainable Development -Sustainable development refers to the idea that a nation’s growth must take place without negatively affecting the environment. Maintaining an appropriate balance between environmental conservation and societal growth is necessary.

5. Right to Education – One of the most important aspects of life and the advancement of civilization is education. The amount of educated individuals in the nation may be used to analyze its progress; the more educated the population, the more developed the nation will be.

Article 21: Right to Life
Article 21: Right to Life

6. Right to Information – One of the most crucial elements of Article 21 is the right to information, sometimes known as the right to know. This is a fundamental right that all inhabitants of sovereign nations are entitled to. 


This article was written by the Indian constitution’s drafters so that no provision is required, and no one is exempt from basic obligations that all citizens of the nation are required to uphold.

Constitutional Law of India, 10thEdn. (2018), by Dr. Narender Kumar, published by Allahabad Law Agency.

Author: Trisha Chatterjee, a Student of Bharati Vidyapeeth, New Law College, Pune

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