This composition centers around the characteristics of copyright and sheds flare on its significance in guarding creative works. From literature to music, art to films, brand plays a vital part in fostering creativity, encouraging invention, and securing intellectual property, history copyright, transfer of copyright or license, and violation.


 Copyright, a basic generality in the field of intellectual property, encompasses a bundle of rights granted to generators and authors to guard their original works of the mortal mind. The copyright symbol is ©. By feting and upholding copyright, society acknowledges the value and significance of the original creation of humans. 

Meaning of Copyright: 

Copyright is a legal generality that grants exclusive rights to generators of original works. It ensures that generators have control over how their creations are used and allows them to be recognized and awarded for their sweats. Others would need your authorization to use your characters or story in a movie or adapt it into a play. Copyright empowers original generators to cover their creations and encourages a thriving terrain of invention and creativity.

 History of Copyright Law in India:

 The history of Copyright Acts in India showcases the elaboration of intellectual property rights in the country. Let’s take a look at the vital mileposts back in the day when the East India Company was calling the shots, India’s original Copyright Act was born in 1847. According to the Act, a copyright is valid for 42 years, or the author’s continuance plus a fresh seven years. Still, the government has the authority to grant publishing licenses after the author’s death, if the original proprietor declines. The Act was supplanted by the Copyright Act of 1914. It is considered the first “modern” copyright law in India. This adaptation aimed to grease the dissipation of literature across the social key. This enactment in India pertains to intellectual property rights and is considered the oldest. The trip of brand legislation in India highlights the country’s sweat to cover the rights of generators and foster a favorable terrain for cultural and erudite works.

Terms and Power of Copyright:

It’s divided as follows literary, dramatic, musical or cultural works. The Copyright expires after 60 years the author dies.

  • Where a work has a combined author/co-author, it expires 60 years from the end of the calendar year in which the co-author dies.
  • Where the author’s identity is unknown, the brand expires 60 times from the end of the timetable time in which the work was first published.
  • In a case where there are combined authors and co-authors and the identity of one author is known and the identity of the other is unknown, the copyright expires 60 years after which the known author dies.
  • In cinematograph films, the Copyright shall live until 60 years from the beginning of the calendar year following the year in which the film is made available to the public. 
  • Sound recordings The Copyright shall subsist until 60 years from the start of the calendar year following the year in which the sound recording is made available to the public. 

Further, the author’s moral right, which is a right against deformation, is available indeed after the expiry of the term of copyright. 

Ownership of Copyright:

The ownership of copyright is dependent on varied factors. The conception of “first possessor” is relatively important and may be determined as follows:

In the case of a literary, dramatic or cultural work created during employment or under a contract of service, for publication in a newspaper, magazine or journal, the author of such a publication shall, in the absence of a contract to the negative, be the first proprietor of the copyright. However, similar ownership shall vest with the owner of the publication only for the limited purpose of publishing the work. 

Copyright enrollment:

Copyright exists automatically in an original work of authorship once it’s fixed, but a copyright proprietor can take way to enhance the protections. Registering a work isn’t obligatory, but for U.S. works, enrollment is necessary to apply the exclusive rights of copyright through action. Timely enrollment also allows copyright possessors to seek certain types of financial damages and attorney costs if there’s an action and also provides a presumption that information on the enrollment instrument is correct. Copyright enrollment also provides value to the public overall. It facilitates the licensing business by allowing people to find copyright ownership information, and it provides the public with notice that someone is claiming copyright protection.

Assignment of Copyright:

Section 18 deals with the owner of copyright in an existing work and may assign any right to another one.

Section 19 deals with the requisites of a valid assignment of copyright 

  • must be in writing, 
  • signed by the assignor or agent
  • duration of territorial extent mentioned 
  • amount of royalty payable

Licensing of copyright:

Sections 30 to 32 deal with licensing of copyright:

Section 30 deals with the voluntary license 

Section 31 deals with compulsory or nonvoluntary license

Section 32 deals with statutory license

Section 32B deals with the termination of the license

Termination terms

  • Assignment lapses if not exercised within one year
  • If the assignment period is not mentioned then the five years
  • Territorial extent is not mentioned then it is within India.

Assignment of copyright must be in writing and signed. Assignment of copyright and licensing of copyright is for existing and further works.

License by joint owner:

The license in case of the joint owner without the consent of others cannot grant license to any, if made it leads to infringement.

Forms and content of license:

  • No prescribed form for license deed
  • Identification of work
  • Duration of license
  • Rights
  • Territorial extent
  • Royalty payable
  • Terms of revision, extension and termination

Copyright Authorities:

  • Copyright Office
  • Copyright Board and 
  • Copyright Societies

Berne Convention:

It was adopted in the year 1886, it deals with the protection of rights and works of composers or creators. It was held in Berne, Switzerland of 10 European member countries. In the year 1989 United States joined in Berne Convention. At present over 180 member countries and some city-states. 

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literacy and Artistic Works fundamental principles include national treatment, automatic protection, minimum standards of protection, independence of protection, and duration of protection.

Remedies for Copyright violation in India:

Remedies a person has for copyright violation in India. There are three types of remedies a person can get for copyright violation in India civil remedies, criminal remedies and executive remedies.

Types of copyright Infringements:

Copyright violation has become a serious issue in the ultramodern world. Violation occurs when a person designedly or unintentionally clones the work of another creator. 

Violation is generally classified into two orders –

1) Primary infringement and

2) Secondary infringement.

Civil Remedies for Copyright Infringement:

Section 55, of the Copyright Act, 1957. The different civil remedies available are:

  1. Interlocutory Injunctions:

The most important remedy is the entitlement of an interlocutory instruction. In utmost cases, the operation filled is for interlocutory relief and the matter infrequently goes beyond the interlocutory stage. There are three conditions for there to be an entitlement of interlocutory injunction – originally, a prima facie case, followed by, the balance of convenience. Eventually, there needs to be an irrecoverable injury.

  1. Pecuniary Remedies:

Copyright possessors can also seek three pecuniary remedies under sections 55 and 58 of the Copyright Act of 1957. 

First, an account of gains which lets the proprietor seek the sum of money made equal to the profit made through unlawful conduct.

Second, compensatory damages which let the copyright proprietor seek the damages he suffered due to the violation. 

Third, conversion damages are assessed according to the value of the article.

  1. Anton Pillar Orders:

The Anton Pillar order gets its name from the holding in Anton Pillar AGV manufacturing Processes. The succeeding elements are present in an Anton Pillar Order – 

An injunction restraining the defendant from destroying or infringing goods. Alternate, an order permitting the plaintiff’s counsel to search the defendant’s demesne and take goods in their safe custody. Followed by, an order that the defendant be directed to disclose the names and addresses of suppliers and consumers.

Criminal Remedies:

• Section 63 deals with criminal remedies for infringement of copyright. Under the Copyright Act, of 1957 the following remedies are handed for violation. Imprisonment is up to 3 years but, not lower than 6 months, a fine which may not be lower than 50,000 but, may extend up to 2,00,000 and search and seizure of infringing goods. 

Jurisdiction and limitation of Copyright:

Section 60 of the Copyright Act 1957 deals with if an infringement of copyright occurs then the original creator of a copyright can file a suit for infringement in District Court or High Court in plaintiff resides or carries business or where cause of action arose. The limitation period for filing of suit is three years from the date of infringement.


The law of copyright encompasses a set of distinctive characteristics that play a key role in safeguarding creative works and intellectual property. At its core, copyright is designed to protect original material, serving as a guard for the intangible creations of the human mind. One crucial aspect of it is its limited duration. Copyright protection is granted for a specific period, allowing generators to enjoy exclusive rights to their works for a reasonable span.

Author: Nagasreelekha Yelliboina, a Student of Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati

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