Article on Landmark Case: M Siddiq(D) Thr Lrs. V. Mahant Suresh Das & Ors.(Ayodhya Dispute Case)  

Article on Landmark Case: M Siddiq(D) Thr Lrs. V. Mahant Suresh Das & Ors.(Ayodhya Dispute Case)  

Author: Anjali Tamta, a Student of Janhit College of Law


 The Ram Mandir case, also known as the Ayodhya dispute case, stands as a seminal legal saga in India, intricately weaving together  literal, religious, and legal  vestments. At its heart lies the contentious  point in Ayodhya, where the Babri Masjid  formerly stood until its  obliteration in 1992,  kindling a  disagreement of religious  vehemence and legal battles. This  preface sets the stage for a nuanced  disquisition of the legal  trip that  crowned in the Supreme Court’s  corner verdict on November 9, 2019, reshaping the socio- political  geography of the nation and  reconsidering  sundries of collaborative harmony andjustice.The legal  trip of the Ram Mandir case reached its  zenith with the Supreme Court’s verdict on November 9, 2019. The court’s decision was a  scrupulous analysis of  literal, archaeological, and legal aspects, aiming to strike a balance between  contending claims and sentiments.  

The legal proceedings excavated into  literal records, archaeological findings, and religious beliefs to ascertain the  due claim to the disputed land. The Archaeological Survey of India( ASI) played a  pivotal  part by conducting excavations at the  point. The ASI’s report presented  substantiation of apre-existing structure that had Hindu architectural  rudiments, supporting the contention that it could be the remains of a Hindu  tabernacle. 

 The Supreme Court’s verdict, delivered by a five- judge bench,  conceded the  literal and religious significance of the  point. The court ruled in favor of the construction of a Hindu  tabernacle, while also feting  the sentiments of the Muslim community. In a  corner decision, the court directed the government to allocate an indispensable five- acre plot to the Sunni Waqf Board for the construction of a synagogue .  

The judgment was hailed as a momentous step toward resolving a longstanding  disagreement that had fueled religious pressures for decades. Legal experts lauded the court’s  scrupulous examination of  substantiation and its attempt to  give a balanced  result. The verdict emphasized the  significance of maintaining collaborative harmony and upholding the principles of justice.  


The Ayodhya  disagreement, one of the most contentious issues in India, traces its roots back centuries, intertwining  literal, religious, and political narratives. The history of the Ayodhya  disagreement is-  

  1. Ancient History-  Ayodhya, located in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, is  deified by Hindus as the  motherland of Lord Ram, a central figure in the Hindu  grand Ramayana. According to tradition, a  tabernacle  devoted to Lord Ram, known as the Ram Janmabhoomi,  was at the  point for centuries.  
  2. Medieval period-  In the 16th century, during the Mughal rule in India, a synagogue  was constructed on the  point by the Mughal Emperor Babur’s general, Mir Baqi, in 1528. This synagogue  came to be known as the Babri Masjid.  
  3. Social Period-  In 1857, during the British  social  period, pressures arose between Hindus and Muslims over access to the  point. The British authorities erected a  hedge around the  point in 1859, separating the inner and  external  yards, to  help collaborative clashes.  
  4. 20th Century-  The Ayodhya  disagreement gained  elevation in the 20th century, particularly after independence in 1947. In 1949,  icons  of Lord Ram were surreptitiously placed inside the synagogue , leading to its  check by the authorities. This incident sparked legal  controversies between Hindus and Muslims over power of the  point. 
  5. Legal Battles- The legal battle over the power of the  point  boosted over the decades. Multiple court cases were filed by both Hindu and Muslim groups, each claiming exclusive rights to the  point. The main legal issue revolved around whether the synagogue  was  erected on the  remains of apre-existing Hindu  tabernacle.  
  6. Babri Masjid obliteration-  Pressures reached a boiling point on December 6, 1992, when a Hindu nationalist mob demolished the Babri Masjid, claiming it was  erected on the  motherland of Lord Ram. The  obliteration  touched off  wide collaborative  screams across India, performing in loss of life and property.
  7. Post-Demolition Fallout-  Following the Babri Masjid  obliteration, the Indian government established  colorful commissions of inquiry to  probe the incident and assess responsibility. The  obliteration profoundly impacted Indian politics, leading to the rise of Hindu nationalist sentiment and the Bharatiya Janata Party( BJP) as a major political force. 
  8.  Legal Proceedings-  In the  fate of the  obliteration,  multitudinous legal cases were filed in Indian courts regarding the power of the disputed  point. These cases were consolidated and heard by the Supreme Court of India.  
  9. Supreme Court Verdict-  After times of legal proceedings and  reflections, the Supreme Court of India delivered its verdict on November 9, 2019. The court ruled in favor of the construction of a Hindu  tabernacle at the disputed  point, while also directing the government to allocate an indispensable plot of land to the Sunni Waqf Board for the construction of a synagogue . 


The Ayodhya dispute case raised several key facts and arguments from both the Hindu and Muslim perspectives. There are some of the facts and contentions presented during the legal proceedings:

1. Historical Evidence:-  Both Hindu and Muslim parties presented historical evidence to support their claims to the disputed site. Hindu groups argued that the site was the birthplace of Lord Ram and that a temple dedicated to him existed there before the construction of the Babri Masjid. Muslim groups countered by presenting evidence of continuous Muslim occupation of the site since the construction of the mosque in the 16th century.

2. Archaeological Findings:- The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) conducted excavations at the site and presented its findings as evidence during the trial. The ASI reported the discovery of evidence suggesting the presence of a pre-existing structure with Hindu architectural elements beneath the site of the Babri Masjid, bolstering the Hindu claim that it was the site of the Ram Janmabhoomi temple.

3. Legal Ownership:-  Both Hindu and Muslim parties claimed legal ownership of the disputed site based on historical documents, land records, and religious beliefs. Hindu groups argued for the restoration of the site to Hindu ownership, citing its significance as the birthplace of Lord Ram. Muslim groups asserted their right to ownership based on the continuous occupation and use of the site as a mosque for centuries.

4. Political Context::-  The Ayodhya dispute was not just a legal matter but also deeply intertwined with political dynamics in India. Hindu nationalist organizations and political parties advocated for the construction of a Ram temple at the disputed site, viewing it as a matter of religious and cultural identity. On the other hand, Muslim groups and secular parties emphasized the need to uphold the rule of law and protect the rights of religious minorities.

5. Public Order Concerns:-  The demolition of the Babri Masjid in 1992 and the subsequent communal riots raised concerns about public order and communal harmony. The legal proceedings also took into account the potential consequences of the court’s verdict on public sentiment and social cohesion. 

6. Alternative Solutions:-  Throughout the legal proceedings, various alternative solutions were proposed to resolve the dispute, including negotiated settlements and mediated discussions between Hindu and Muslim stakeholders. However, these efforts were often hindered by entrenched positions and ideological differences.


The Ayodhya dispute case raised several critical issues that were at the heart of the legal proceedings and deliberations. Here are the main issues raised:

  1. Title Suit:- The central issue in the Ayodhya dispute case was the determination of ownership or title to the disputed site. Both Hindu and Muslim parties claimed legal ownership based on historical records, religious beliefs, and continuous occupation of the site. Resolving the title suit was crucial to deciding who had the rightful claim to the land where the Babri Masjid once stood.
  2. Archaeological Evidence:- A key issue raised during the trial was the significance of archaeological evidence in determining the historical context of the disputed site. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) conducted excavations and presented its findings, which included evidence of a pre-existing structure with Hindu architectural elements beneath the Babri Masjid. The interpretation and reliability of archaeological evidence played a crucial role in shaping the court’s decision.
  3. Religious Beliefs and Sentiments:- The Ayodhya dispute case involved deeply held religious beliefs and sentiments of both Hindus and Muslims. For Hindus, the site was revered as the birthplace of Lord Ram, and the construction of a temple dedicated to him was considered a matter of religious significance. On the other hand, Muslims regarded the Babri Masjid as a symbol of their religious heritage and opposed any attempts to alter its status.
  4. Rule of Law vs. Faith:- The case raised questions about the balance between the rule of law and faith-based beliefs. While the law provides a framework for resolving property disputes, the Ayodhya dispute case presented a unique challenge in reconciling legal principles with deeply ingrained religious convictions. The court had to navigate these competing interests while upholding the principles of justice and secularism.
  5. Communal Harmony and Public Order:- The Ayodhya dispute had a history of triggering communal tensions and violence, including the demolition of the Babri Masjid in 1992 and subsequent riots. The court was mindful of the potential implications of its verdict on communal harmony and public order, emphasizing the need for a solution that would foster reconciliation and peace among different religious communities.


In the Ayodhya dispute case, various parties submitted written submissions outlining their arguments and evidence to support their respective claims. An overview of the written submissions made by the main parties involved:

  1. Hindu Parties:- The Hindu parties, including the Ram Janmabhoomi Nyas, the Nirmohi Akhara, and the deity Ram Lalla Virajman (represented by next friend), asserted their claim to the disputed site as the birthplace of Lord Ram and sought the construction of a Ram temple at the site.

    They presented historical records, religious texts, and archaeological evidence to support their contention that a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Ram existed at the site before the construction of the Babri Masjid.

    The Hindu parties argued that the Babri Masjid was built by demolishing the pre-existing Hindu temple and that the site should be restored to Hindu ownership for the construction of a temple.
  2. Muslim Parties:- The Muslim parties, including the Sunni Waqf Board and various Muslim individuals and organizations, claimed legal ownership of the disputed site and sought the restoration of the Babri Masjid.

    They argued that the Babri Masjid had been in continuous use as a mosque for centuries and that Muslims had acquired legal rights over the site through adverse possession.

    The Muslim parties disputed the Hindu claim of a pre-existing temple and challenged the reliability of archaeological evidence presented by the Hindu parties.
  3. Government of India:- The Government of India, represented by the Union of India, played a neutral role in the dispute and presented written submissions outlining its position on the matter.

    The government emphasized the need to maintain law and order, uphold the secular principles of the Indian Constitution, and find a peaceful resolution to the dispute through legal means.

    While the government did not advocate for a specific outcome, it facilitated the legal process and provided security measures to prevent any potential violence or unrest.
  4. Intervenors and Other Stakeholders:-Various intervenors, including religious and cultural organizations, as well as legal experts and scholars, submitted written interventions to support or challenge the arguments presented by the main parties. 

These interventions provided additional perspectives, evidence, and legal arguments to assist the court in arriving at a just and equitable decision.


In the Ayodhya dispute case, various objections were raised by different parties regarding the evidence, arguments, and legal positions put forward by opposing parties. Some of the objections raised during the proceedings:

  1. Objections to Archaeological Evidence: Hindu parties objected to the interpretation of archaeological findings by the Muslim parties, arguing that the presence of Hindu architectural remains beneath the Babri Masjid provided strong evidence of a pre-existing Hindu temple at the site.Muslim parties disputed the conclusions drawn from the archaeological excavations, questioning the methodology used and the reliability of the findings. They argued that the evidence presented did not conclusively prove the existence of a Hindu temple beneath the mosque.
  2. Objections to Historical Records: Both Hindu and Muslim parties raised objections to each other’s historical records and documents presented as evidence to support their claims.Hindu parties questioned the authenticity and accuracy of Muslim historical records regarding the construction of the Babri Masjid, alleging biases and inaccuracies.Muslim parties challenged the reliability of Hindu scriptures and epics cited by the Hindu parties to establish the existence of a temple at the disputed site, arguing that they lacked historical veracity and were subject to interpretation.
  3. Objections to Legal Arguments: Hindu and Muslim parties objected to each other’s legal interpretations and arguments regarding property rights, adverse possession, and legal precedents.Hindu parties objected to the Muslim claim of adverse possession, arguing that continuous and unchallenged use of the site as a mosque did not confer legal ownership.Muslim parties objected to the Hindu claim of title based on religious sentiment, asserting that legal principles and evidence should prevail over religious beliefs in determining ownership rights.
  4. Objections to Political Influence: Some parties raised objections to alleged political interference and influence in the dispute, arguing that political motivations and agendas were influencing the legal proceedings.Concerns were raised about the potential impact of public sentiment and political pressure on the impartiality and fairness of the judicial process.
  5. Objections to Public Order Concerns: Both Hindu and Muslim parties expressed concerns about the potential repercussions of the court’s verdict on public order and communal harmony.They raised objections to any outcome that could exacerbate tensions or lead to violence and unrest, emphasizing the need for a peaceful resolution to the dispute.


The Ayodhya dispute case garnered international attention and elicited varied reactions from around the world. Some of the key international responses to the Supreme Court’s verdict in the Ayodhya dispute:

  1. United States:  The U.S. State Department issued a statement welcoming the Supreme Court’s decision and urging all parties to maintain peace and harmony. The statement emphasized the importance of respecting religious freedom and the rule of law.
  2. Pakistan:  The government of Pakistan expressed disappointment over the Supreme Court’s verdict, stating that it went against the principles of justice and secularism. Pakistani leaders called for the protection of the rights of Muslims and emphasized the need for a fair and equitable resolution to the dispute.
  3. United Kingdom:  The British government issued a statement acknowledging the significance of the Ayodhya dispute and the complexity of the issues involved. It urged all parties to respect the court’s decision and work towards reconciliation and harmony.
  4. Islamic Countries:  Various Islamic countries and organizations issued statements expressing solidarity with the Muslim community in India and calling for the protection of their rights. They urged the Indian government to ensure the safety and security of Muslims and to uphold the principles of justice and equality.


 The judgment of the Ayodhya dispute case, delivered by the Supreme Court of India on November 9, 2019, was a landmark decision that sought to resolve the long-standing legal battle over the ownership of the disputed site in Ayodhya. The key points of the Supreme Court’s judgment:

  1. Title Suit Resolution: The court ruled that the disputed site in Ayodhya would be allocated for the construction of a Hindu temple. The court concluded that the Hindus had established their case by a preponderance of probabilities and had shown continuous possession of the outer courtyard of the disputed land.
  2. Alternative Land Allocation: In a significant move aimed at fostering communal harmony, the court directed the central government to allocate five acres of land at an alternative site in Ayodhya for the construction of a mosque. This decision was based on the principle of restitution and aimed to provide relief to the Muslim community.
  3. Babri Masjid Demolition: While addressing the demolition of the Babri Masjid in 1992, the court held that the act was illegal and a violation of the rule of law. The court emphasized the need to ensure that such incidents are not repeated in the future and called for respect for the law and the Constitution.
  4. Archaeological Findings: The court took into consideration the archaeological findings presented by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which suggested the presence of a pre-existing structure with Hindu architectural elements beneath the Babri Masjid. However, the court did not base its decision solely on these findings and considered them as corroborative evidence.
  5. Rule of Law and Secularism: The judgment underscored the importance of upholding the rule of law and secular principles enshrined in the Indian Constitution. The court emphasized that the dispute should be resolved based on legal principles rather than religious sentiments or beliefs.


The Ayodhya dispute case, culminating in the Supreme Court’s verdict, represents a watershed moment in India’s legal history. With the allocation of the disputed site for the construction of a Hindu temple and the provision of alternative land for a mosque, the judgment sought to strike a delicate balance between competing religious sentiments while upholding the rule of law. This landmark decision aimed to promote communal harmony, reconciliation, and national unity, transcending decades of acrimony and discord surrounding the issue. By emphasizing the importance of mutual respect, tolerance, and coexistence among India’s diverse religious communities, the conclusion of the Ayodhya dispute case charted a path towards healing the wounds of the past and fostering a future of peace and inclusivity. As the legal chapter of the dispute draws to a close, the spirit of dialogue, understanding, and respect remains pivotal in navigating the complexities of India’s pluralistic society and shaping a shared vision of harmony and coexistence for generations to come.

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