Author :SAMRINA ZAHEDIN, A student At Madhusudan Law University


Climate change refers to long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, wind patterns, and other atmospheric conditions on Earth. While natural processes contribute to climate variations, the term is commonly used to describe the significant and often rapid changes occurring in recent decades, primarily due to human activities. The primary driver of contemporary climate change is the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), deforestation, and industrial processes, release greenhouse gases like- carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat, leading to a warming effect known as the greenhouse effect.

There are some Major aspects on which Climate Change can be addressed:

1. Global Warming:

The Earth’s average surface temperature has been rising, leading to global warming. This warming trend is primarily attributed to human-induced increases in greenhouse gas concentrations.

2. Changes in Weather Patterns:

 Climate change results in alterations to weather patterns, causing more frequent and intense extreme weather events such as hurricanes, heatwaves, droughts, and heavy rainfall.

3. Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels:

The warming climate contributes to the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, leading to rising sea levels. This poses a threat to coastal communities and ecosystems.

4. Ocean Acidification:

The absorption of excess carbon dioxide by the oceans results in ocean acidification, negatively impacting marine life, particularly organisms with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons.

5. Biodiversity Impact:

Climate change affects ecosystems and biodiversity by altering habitats, migration patterns, and the timing of biological events (phenology). Some species may struggle to adapt or face extinction.

Addressing climate change involves mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to its impacts, and transitioning to more sustainable practices. International cooperation, policies, and individual actions are crucial components of efforts to combat climate change and foster a more sustainable future.


In the global domain the United Nations (UN) keeps the tabs on the climate Changes. The UN plays a significant role in addressing climate change through various initiatives and international agreements. There are some key aspects of the UN’s involvement in combating climate change: 

1.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC):

 The IPCC, established by the UN in collaboration with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), provides scientific assessments of climate change. It synthesizes and assesses climate research to inform policymakers and the public.

2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC):

The UNFCCC is an international treaty that serves as the foundation for global efforts to combat climate change. It was adopted in 1992 and entered into force in 1994. The annual Conference of the Parties (COP) meetings brings together member countries to discuss and negotiate climate-related actions.

3. Paris Agreement:

The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015 at COP21 in Paris, is a landmark international accord within the UNFCCC framework. It aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Countries submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs) outlining their climate action plans.

4. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

Climate action is integrated into the broader context of sustainable development through the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Goal 13 specifically addresses climate action, emphasizing the need to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

The UN’s multifaceted approach to climate change involves scientific assessment, international agreements, financial support, and advocacy to foster a coordinated global response to the challenges posed by climate change.


Government accountability is essential to ensure that climate policies are effective, transparent, and aligned with global commitments. It fosters public trust, allocates resources efficiently, and addresses the multifaceted challenges posed by climate change, ultimately contributing to a more sustainable and resilient future. It is crucial for addressing climate change for several reasons:

1.Policy Effectiveness:

Accountability ensures that climate policies are well-defined, implemented efficiently, and produce the intended results. Regular evaluation helps refine strategies based on performance and outcomes.

2. Transparency and Trust:

Openness about government actions on climate change fosters public trust. Transparent communication about policies, progress, and challenges allows citizens to be informed and engaged in the decision-making process.

3. Resource Allocation:

 Accountability ensures that allocated resources, such as funding for climate initiatives, are used effectively. Oversight helps prevent mismanagement and ensures that financial investments contribute to meaningful climate action.

4. Global Commitments:

Many countries make international commitments to address climate change, such as those under the Paris Agreement. Government accountability ensures that nations fulfill their pledges, contributing to global efforts to mitigate climate change.

5. Long-Term Planning:

Climate change requires sustained, long-term efforts. Government accountability ensures that administrations consistently prioritize climate action, irrespective of changes in leadership, providing continuity in addressing a complex and ongoing challenge.


1.Policy Transparency:

Governments should develop and communicate clear climate policies. Transparency ensures that citizens understand the goals, strategies, and timelines for addressing climate change.

2. Measurable Targets:

 Establishing specific, measurable, and time-bound targets is essential. This includes emissions reduction goals, renewable energy adoption targets, and other metrics to gauge progress

3. Legislation and Regulation:

Governments must enact robust climate legislation and regulations to provide a legal framework for addressing environmental issues. Effective enforcement mechanisms are crucial to ensure compliance.

4. Monitoring and Reporting:

Regular monitoring and reporting on climate-related initiatives help assess progress. This information should be accessible to the public, facilitating informed engagement and accountability.

5. Independent Oversight:

Establishing independent bodies or agencies responsible for evaluating and overseeing government actions on climate change enhances accountability. These entities can assess progress objectively and report findings to the public.

6. Adaptation and Resilience:

Besides mitigation efforts, governments should focus on adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change. Accountability includes planning for and responding to the changing climate to protect communities.


Comprehensive government accountability for climate change involves a combination of clear policies, measurable targets, legal frameworks, public involvement, oversight mechanisms, and international collaboration to effectively address the challenges posed by climate change.

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