By   SHALINI JHA, ISBR Law College, 



 We all want a life that is meaningful and fulfilling, but the truth is that everyone also wants the right to die in dignity. segment 21 of the Indian Constitution, which explicitly expresses that we reserve the option to opportunity of freedom, gives us the ensures that give our lives importance. When a person takes their own life, it is referred to as suicide; however, when another person takes a person’s life with that person’s consent, it is referred to as euthanasia. Killing generally relates to the person who is 2. The most significant aspect of the landmark Maneka Gandhi v. The Union of India decision was the court’s emphasis on the right to live with dignity, which is comprised of three rules known as the golden triangle of rules Article 14, 19, and 21. Presently, every system should fulfill every single condition set down in these three articles.

Note: This case makes it abundantly clear that, in order to fulfill the conditions of the principles outlined in this case—the Golden Triangle of Rule—that is, 14, 19, and 21—all cases belonging to this category must satisfy all of these criteria.

Right to Die and Euthanasia: Rathinam v. Union of India, the Supreme Court ruled that the argument that euthanasia should be legalized as a form of “mercy killing” was “nothing to do with the scope of this petition.” Furthermore, likewise on the grounds that in willful extermination, a third individual is either effectively or latently involved, about whom it could be said that he helps or abets the killing of someone else.

3. There is a differentiation between an endeavor of an individual to make his life and move of some others to finish the existence of a third individual. Such a qualification can be made on rule and is reasonably passable.

1. Active Euthanasia: In active euthanasia, a doctor deliberately administers fatal medications to a patient with an incurable or terminal illness to end their life.

2. Assisted Suicide: -The demonstration of keeping or stopping life-supporting considerations is alluded to as detached willful extermination.

Self destruction versus killing

The Supreme Court ruled in Gian Kaur v. State of Punjab that the view of proponents of euthanasia that living in a state of persistent vegetative state is not beneficial to a terminally ill patient because it is unrelated to the principle of “sanctity of life” or “right to live with Dignity” is of no assistance in determining the scope of Article 21 of the Constitution for determining whether the Guarantee of “right to life” therein includes the “right to die.” The ‘right to life’, including the option to live with human poise, implies the presence of such a right up until the finish of regular life.

India’s Lawful Place of Dynamic Killing

1.In India, Dynamic Killing is culpable under area 304 of the IPC and falls under blamable manslaughter, not adding up to kill.

Aruna Ramchandra Shanbaugh’s case, The Report of the Law Commission of India on Uninvolved Killing, additionally perceived willful extermination, but no regulation has been authorized. The right to self-determination and autonomy belongs to every adult with the capacity to consent. The said freedoms prepare for the option to deny clinical treatment, which has been acclaimed as an all-inclusive acknowledgment. A skilled individual who has grown up has the privilege to reject explicit treatment or all treatment or settle on an alterative treatment, regardless of whether such choice involves a gamble of death.

In Territory of Maharashtra versus Maruty Sripati Dubal:- A Bombay Police Constable who was intellectually disturbed was rejected consent to set up a shop and make money. Out of dissatisfaction, he attempted to set himself ablaze in the organization’s office room. The Bombay High Court struck down segment 309 , IPC, which gives discipline to endeavoring to end it all by an individual, as illegal.

Furthermore, It was Held that the right to life ensured by Craftsmanship 21 incorporates an option to kick the bucket. The desire to die is just unusual and rare. A person may wish to end their life for a number of reasons, including a sense of shame or dissatisfaction with life, a cruel or unbearable condition, or a disease. Everyone ought to be able to end his or her life whenever they want.

Then again, the Andhra Pradesh High Court in Chenna Jagadeeswar versus Province of A.P

It was held that the option to kick the bucket is certainly not an essential right inside the significance of Article 21, and subsequently Segment 309 IPC is illegal.

Union of India versus Common Cause.

The solicitor recorded a writ request under Article 32 of the Indian Constitution looking for announcement of the option to bite the dust with poise as a key right inside the overlap of right to reside with nobility ensured under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution and to give headings to the respondents to take on reasonable technique in counsel with state legislatures, where important to guarantee that people of decayed wellbeing or at death’s door patients ought to have the option to execute a report named.

In the case of Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan, the court established the guidelines for implementing passive euthanasia in the absence of advance directives as well as in the presence of advance directives, which would remain in effect until the relevant legislation is passed by the legislature.

The ease with which a terminally ill person or a person in PVS who has no hope of recovery can die is also part of the right to live with dignity. If advance medical directives are not recognized by law, it could negate a person’s right to a peaceful death and their right to live with dignity. Advance Directive: The procedure outlined in the court’s directives and guidelines in this case will apply. At the point when inactive killing as a situational palliative measure becomes relevant, the wellbeing of the patient will supersede the state interest.


The court gave far reaching bearings and rules covering the circumstances that managed Aruna Shanbaugh’s case. Because it will dispel many doubts at the relevant time of need during the course of the patient’s treatment, an advance medical directive would be a fruitful means to facilitate the fructification of the sacrosanct right to life with dignity.

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